The California Harmful Algal Bloom Monitoring and Alert Program (HABMAP) was formed in 2008 as an ad-hoc consortium of concerned scientists, federal and state managers, and stakeholders. Since 2011, the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) regional associations of California – Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing System (SCCOOS) and Central and Northern California Ocean Observing System (CeNCOOS) – have been sustaining the monitoring effort. Principal investigators (PIs) sample weekly at nine university-run or municipal pier stations from San Diego to Humboldt for a suite of HAB species and for the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA) caused by the Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) producing diatom Pseudo-nitzschia. The data were used to validate the California Harmful Algae Risk Mapping (C-HARM) System, a model developed with support from NASA Applied Sciences Program and NOAA National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS) to predict when and where toxic blooms occur to better inform management decisions.
|1. Sea Surface Temperature||6. HAB Species:||7. Other Diatoms|
|2. Chlorophyll-a||6.1. Alexandrium spp.||8. Other Dinoflagellates|
|3. Phaeophytin||6.2. Ceratium spp.||9. Total Phytoplankton|
|4. Nutrients:||6.3. Cochlodinium spp.|
|4.1. Ammonium||6.4. Dinophysis spp.|
|4.2. Nitrate||6.5. Gymnodinium spp.|
|4.3. Phosphate||6.6. Lingulodinium polyedrum|
|4.4. Silicic Acid||6.7. Prorocentrum spp.|
|5. Toxins||6.8. Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima group|
|5.1 Particulate domoic acid||6.9. Pseudo-nitzschia seriata group|
|5.2 Dissolved domoic acid|
*SCCOOS and CeNCOOS do not fund all the of the above listed observations and therefore they may not be measured at each site.
Ecosystems and Fisheries
Harmful algal bloom (HAB) events threaten human health, living marine resources, and ecosystem health. Domoic acid (DA), a neurotoxin produced by some diatom species of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia, is responsible for frequent large-scale marine mammal and seabird mortalities along California’s coasts due to its accumulation in marine food webs (e.g., sardines and anchovies) and subsequent exposure in top predators. California sea lions, Zalophus californianus, are among the most frequent marine mammal victims of DA poisoning. Marine mammal strandings presenting with neurological symptoms (e.g., lethargy, disorientation and seizures) are often associated with DA, and if not treated, will cause death. Massive toxic blooom events led to the mass mortality event for marine mammals in the Southern California Bight during 2002, 2006, 2007, and 2017.
Several rehabilitation centers throughout the state are working to rescue and rehabilitate sick and injured marine mammals including the Northcoast Marine Mammal Center (NMMC), The Marine Mammal Center (TMMC), Channel Islands Marine Wildlife Institute (CIMWI), California Wildlife Center (CWC), Marine Mammal Care Center Los Angeles (MMCC-LA), Marine Animal Rescue (MAR), Pacific Marine Mammal Center (PMMC), and SeaWorld.
Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) Research: HAB monitoring and forecasting provides an operational warning system for HAB events. Monitoring provided by individually funded HABs stations throughout the state of California can prevent human illness by providing an early warning system for fisheries and for marine mammal stranding networks. Advanced warning of HABs informs managers, researchers, and the public on environmental and economic threats. Gliders inform researchers about the subsurface origin of HABs. In addition, gliders provide information on thin (cryptic) layers of phytoplankton where refuge HAB populations often reside. Another application of glider data being used for HAB research is to better understand the bio-physical coupling associated with upwelling events and advection. These bio-physical processes are the drivers of the food web in Southern California.
- Clarissa Anderson, SCCOOS - clrander @ucsd.edu
- Mark Brzezinski, UCSB - mark.brzezinski @lifesci.ucsb.edu
- David Caron, USC - dcaron @usc.edu
- Melissa Carter, UCSD - mlcarter @ucsd.edu
- John Largier, UCD - jlargier @ucdavis.edu
- Rebecca Shipe, UCLA - rshipe @gmail.com
- Libe Washburn, UCSB - libe.washburn @ucsb.edu
- Raphael Kudela, UCSC - kudela @ucsc.edu
- Alexis Pasulka, Cal Poly SLO - apasulka @calpoly.edu
- Henry Ruhl, CeNCOOS - hruhl @mbari.org
- G Jason Smith, MLML - jsmith @mlml.calstate.edu
- Brian Tissot, HSU - brian.tissot @humboldt.edu
- Ryan Walter, Cal Poly SLO - rkwalter @calpoly.edu
Anderson, C. R., Berdalet, E., Kudela, R. M., Cusack, C. K., Silke, J., O'Rourke, E., ... & Paige, K. (2019). Scaling up from regional case studies to a global harmful algal bloom observing system. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, 250. doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2016.08.006
Smith, J., Connell, P., Evans, R. H., Gellene, A. G., Howard, M. D., Jones, B. H., ... & Seubert, E. L. (2018). A decade and a half of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and domoic acid along the coast of southern California. Harmful algae, 79, 87-104. doi:10.1016/j.hal.2018.07.007
Howard MDA, Kudela RM, McLaughlin K (2017). New insights into impacts of anthropogenic nutrients on urban ecosystem processes on the Southern California coastal shelf: Introduction and synthesis. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 186, Part B:163-170. doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2016.06.028 (and several papers therein).
McGowan JA, Deyle ER, Ye H, Carter ML, Perretti CT, Seger KD, de Verneil A, Sugihara G. (2017). Predicting coastal algal blooms in southern California. Ecology. doi/10.1002/ecy.1804/
Anderson, C. R., Kudela, R. M., Kahru, M., Chao, Y., Rosenfeld, L. K., Bahr, F. L., ... & Norris, T. A. (2016). Initial skill assessment of the California harmful algae risk mapping (C-HARM) system. Harmful algae, 59, 1-18. doi.org/10.1029/2010GL045858
Bialonski S, Caron DA, Schloen J, Feudel U, Kantz H, Moorthi SD (2016). Phytoplankton dynamics in the Southern California Bight indicate a complex mixture of transport and biology. Journal of Plankton Resesearch. doi.org/10.1093/plankt/fbv122
Martiny AC, Talarmin A, Mouginot C, Lee JA, Huang JS, Gellene AG, Caron DA (2016). Biogeochemical interactions control a temporal succession in the elemental composition of marine communities. Limnology and Oceanography. doi.org/10.1002/lno.10233
Kudela, R. M., Bickel, A., Carter, M. L., Howard, M. D., & Rosenfeld, L. (2015). The monitoring of harmful algal blooms through ocean observing: the development of the California Harmful Algal Bloom Monitoring and Alert Program. In Coastal Ocean Observing Systems. pp. 58-75. doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-802022-7.00005-5
Seubert EL, Gellene AG, Howard MDA, Connell P, Ragan M, Jones BH, Runyan J, Caron DA (2013) Seasonal and annual dynamics of harmful algae and algal toxins revealed through weekly monitoring at two coastal ocean sites off southern California, USA. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. doi.org/10.1007/s11356-012-1420-0
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Kim H-J, Miller AJ, McGowan J, Carter ML (2009). Coastal phytoplankton blooms in the Southern California Bight. Progresss in Oceanography. doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2009.05.002